对抗烟雾的新催化剂

2017-01-04 09:35:13 来源: 中国科技网 作者: 张微编译

TSU化学家正在创造一个全新的银催化剂来净化空气,能够将有毒的一氧化碳,甲醛和其它有害的挥发性物质转化为无害成分。这种纳米结构催化剂在室温下也有效,可以作为通风过滤器。

“相比于其它贵金属(如金,铂,钯)粒子制成的催化剂,对银催化剂的研究较少。但是它们在有毒挥发性物质的氧化方面一样有效,而且价格便宜10倍,” 催化剂研究实验室的高级研究员格雷戈里 马蒙托夫说。

这种全新的方法使用了纳米材料。研究人员合成了一种特殊类型的二氧化硅凝胶——SBA-15,它是由6-10纳米直径的二氧化硅纳米管组成,并以它作为制备催化剂的基础。

“每一个纳米管都作为一个纳米级反应器。在内部,我们进行银粒子和小于3纳米的氧化铈的化学合成。之后,每个纳米颗粒就成为催化剂。我们的任务是将颗粒分布于纳米管内,并让它们之间产生特殊的相互作用,这样就对有害物质的氧化提供了较好的催化活性。这种催化剂被制成粉末或小颗粒的形式,可以放入家庭、办公室或生产车间的空气净化装置中。在这种情况下,该物质无需加热,因为这种催化剂与其它类似物不同,它在室温下是活跃而且稳定的。” 马蒙托夫说。

科学家补充说,这种催化剂主要是对一氧化碳和甲醛有效,但也可以将其它有害的、挥发性物质降解成无害成分。

“首先,这种催化剂可以满足工业领域和城市的需求,对抗工业排放,和来自森林火灾的烟雾,这些烟雾中含有大量的一氧化碳。此外,该催化剂可用于中和化工厂排放的气体以及汽车的尾气,” 马蒙托夫说。(张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

New catalyst for the fight against smog

TSU chemists are creating a fundamentally new silver catalyst to purify the air, capable of decomposing toxic carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and other harmful volatile substances into harmless components. This nanostructure catalyst may be effective even at room temperature and could be used as a filter for ventilation.

"Silver catalysts are less studied than other catalysts made with particles of precious metals—gold, platinum, and palladium. However, they can be just as effective in the oxidation of harmful volatile substances and cheaper by a factor of 10," said Gregory Mamontov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Catalytic Research.

The fundamentally new approach uses nanostructured materials. The researchers have synthesized a particular type of silica gel—SBA-15, which consists of 6-10 nm diameter nanotubes of silicon oxide, and used it as a basis for preparing the catalyst.

"Each nanotube is used as a nanoscale reactor. Inside, we conduct the synthesis of silver particles and cerium oxide smaller than 3 nm. After that, each nanotube with particles becomes the catalyst. Our task is to distribute the particles inside the nanotubes and to organize special interactions between them that will provide a high catalytic activity in the oxidation of harmful substances. It is assumed that the catalyst obtained in the form of powder or granules can be put into air-cleaning devices in homes, offices or production halls. In this case, it is not necessary to heat it, because this catalyst, in contrast to many analogs, is active and stable at room temperature," said Mamontov.

The scientist added that this catalyst will primarily be effective against carbon monoxide and formaldehyde, but can also degrade other harmful, volatile substances into harmless components.

"First of all, such a catalyst will be in demand in industrial areas and cities to fight industrial emissions and smog from forest fires, which also contains a large amount of carbon monoxide. In addition, the catalyst can be adapted to neutralize the gas discharges of chemical plants and the exhaust systems of automobiles," said Mamontov.

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