英国研究人员提出改善空气质量建议

2017-01-11 14:59:59 来源: 中国科技网 作者: 张微编译

西英格兰大学研究人员的成果可以转化成措施,帮助改善英国的空气质量。

西英格兰布里斯托尔空气质量管理资源中心的研究人员进行的分析,有助于国家健康保健研究所(NICE)指导草案的公布,该草案的目的是减少空气污染。

为了开发这个指南,NICE委托西英格兰大学和独立顾问公司Eunomia,研究当地政府在解决道路交通引发的空气污染方面所应用措施的效果和成本效率。

根据皇家儿科与儿童健康学会的研究,解决交通污染的措施是最重要的,因为公路交通占一个地区氮氧化物污染水平的80%,超过了限度。

西英格兰大学和Eunomia公司所做的分析表明,在某种情况下,对于空气污染进行干预,获得的益处高于成本。干预评估包括越野车车道,街道清扫,高速公路限速,支路建设,路障,封路,低排放区和汽车怠速。

该分析是NICE针对当地政府工作人员在运输,规划和公共卫生方面更广泛咨询的一部分。在英国未能达到欧盟二氧化氮排放限值,中央政府有权利根据欧盟要求对地方政府罚款的时候,这份分析报告已经发布了。根据皇家儿科与儿童健康学会的分析,在英国,估计每年的室外空气污染会造成4万人早死。来自环境、食品及农村事务部(Defra)的证据表明,在英国,每年由于空气污染造成的损失达到160亿英镑。

空气质量管理资源中心,在与地方和国家政府在空气质量管理方面有着长期的合作,在分析-承担解决交通空气污染措施的综合性研究方面,他们发挥了关键作用。

西英格兰大学助理副校长,詹姆士 朗赫斯特教授说:“西英格兰大学很高兴和Eunomia一起合作,承担NICE这个重要的合同。我相信,我们各自具有的世界领先的学科优势,将会提出更好的,有针对的干预措施来保护公众健康,免受交通引发的空气污染。”

NICE临床实践中心主任,马克 贝克教授说:“对抗空气污染是我们必须全力投入的一场战斗。现在,我们可以采取措施鼓励人们步行或骑车,而不是开车,但如果我们没有一个可行的、长期的计划来改善空气质量,那么所有这些努力都将是徒劳的。”

NICE的这份指导草案旨在重新设计我们在城市中如何工作和生活。当它完成的时候,这份指南的建议将确保那些有权利做出必要改变的人,能够对自己所采取的措施和付诸的行动有足够的自信。

Eunomia董事长多米尼克 霍格博士说:“空气污染是一个隐形杀手。我们已经在净化空气方面取得了长足的进步,过去常见的雾霾现在已经不多见了。但是,我们还可以做更多的努力来解决污染,当地政府通过交通计划,控制流量,他们提供给居民的选择,开发的基础设施,还可以做很多努力降低污染程度。在气候变化领域的干预措施和治理空气污染有共同的益处,因此,那些解决空气污染的措施对改善气候变化也会起作用。”(张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

Researchers advise on NICE air pollution guidance

Work by academics at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) could go on to help shape measures to improve air quality across the UK.

Researchers from UWE Bristol's Air Quality Management Resource Centre conducted analysis which contributed to draft guidance published by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) aimed at cutting air pollution.

To develop the guidance, NICE appointed UWE Bristol and independent consultancy firm Eunomia to research the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of measures local authorities have available to them to tackle air pollution from road transport.

Measures to tackle pollution from transport are considered highly important as road transport contributes 80% to NOx pollution levels in areas where limits are exceeded, according to the Royal Colleges of Physicians and of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH).

The analysis by UWE Bristol and Eunomia suggests that the benefits may be much higher than the costs for some air quality interventions under certain circumstances. Interventions evaluated include off-road cycle paths, street washing and sweeping, motorway speed restrictions, bypass construction, motorway barriers, road closures, Low Emission Zones (LEZ) and vehicle idling.

The analysis forms part of NICE's wider consultation aimed at local authority staff working in transport, planning and public health. It has been published at a time when the UK is failing to meet EU limit values for NO2, and when central government has the power to pass down fines from the European Commission to local government. Outdoor air pollution in the UK is estimated to cause 40,000 early deaths a year according to the RCPCH, whilst evidence from Defra indicates that the impacts from air pollution in the UK cost the economy £16 billion a year.

The Air Quality Management Resource Centre, which has a long history of working with local and national governments on air quality management, played a key role in the analysis - undertaking comprehensive research of the literature on measures to tackle air pollution from traffic.

Professor James Longhurst, Assistant Vice-Chancellor at UWE Bristol, said: "UWE Bristol is delighted to have worked in partnership with Eunomia on this important contract for NICE. The world-leading excellence in our respective disciplines will, we trust, lead to better targeted interventions to protect public health from traffic-related air pollution."

Professor Mark Baker, director for the centre of clinical practice at NICE, said: "The battle against air pollution has to be one we are all fully committed to. We can take steps now to encourage people to walk or cycle rather than drive, but these efforts will be futile if we do not have an achievable, long-term plan to improve air quality.

"This draft guidance from NICE seeks to redesign how we work and live in cities. When finalised, its recommendations will ensure that everyone who has the power to make the changes required can be confident in the action they are taking."

Dr Dominic Hogg, Eunomia Chairman, said: "Air pollution is an invisible killer. We have made considerable strides in cleaning up air, and the more visible smogs that were once common are more or less a thing of the past. Yet much more can be done to address these pollutants, and local authorities, through their transport plans and the way in which they shape mobility, the options they offer their residents, and the infrastructure they develop, can do much to reduce the extent of the problem. Interventions in the field of climate change have co-benefits in respect of air pollution, so those that address air pollution will generate benefits in respect of climate change."

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