实验表明狗和猴子拥有类似人类的道德感

2017-02-16 10:18:53 来源: 中国科技网 作者: 张微编译

来自京都大学的研究团队发现,狗和卷尾猴观察人类如何进行人际交往,它们对于那些不愿意帮助别人或分享的人反应不积极。研究人员发表在《神经科学与生物评论》期刊的论文中,该团队描述了他们对几只狗和卷尾猴所进行了一系列实验,他们发现这两个物种的社会偏好。

常识告诉我们,大多数人喜欢与正直的人交往,有些情况下,喜欢交往乐于助人的人。在这项新研究中,研究人员试图了解,对于人类的这种交往,在狗和卷尾猴身上是否也会发生。为此,他们设计了三个实验,测试狗和猴子对人类无礼行为的反应。

在第一个实验中,研究人员让卷尾猴观看一个场景,一个人试图打开罐头。失败后,这个人找另外一个人帮忙,一个场景中,这个人照做了,另一个场景,没有提供帮助。还有一个场景,出现一个人什么也不会做,他在这个场景中只是一个旁观的演员。

在第二个实验中,当两个人(每个人带了三个球)到达实验场地的时候,研究人员让卷尾猴进行观察。其中一个人让另一个人把手里的球全部给他,另一个人照做了。接下来,刚才把球交出去的人现在想要回来,一种情况那个人把球还给他,另一种情况拒绝给他。

第三个实验与第二个实验几乎相同,除了这次实验对象包括狗,它们的主人和另一个人(这个人对狗来说是陌生人)。

所有三个实验的结论,参与的人(包括旁观的演员)都对观察他们行为的猴子或狗提供了一种行为示范。研究人员报告说,在所有三种情形下,相比于乐于助人或正直或旁观的演员,动物对于接受这样的行为表现出明显的不情愿,即拒绝帮助一个人开罐头或拒绝把球还给别人。研究人员声称,这表明卷尾猴和狗做出社会判断的方式与人类婴儿类似,这会对人类道德的发展提供线索。(张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

Experiments suggest dogs and monkeys have a human-like sense of morality

A team of researchers from Kyoto University has found that dogs and capuchin monkeys watch how humans interact with one another and react less positively to those that are less willing to help or share. In their paper published in the journal Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, the team describes a series of experiments they carried out with several dogs and capuchin monkeys and what they discovered about both species social preferences.

Common sense suggests that most people prefer to deal with other people who are fair and in some cases, helpful. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn if the same might be true of dogs and capuchin monkeys regarding human interactions. To that end, they set up three experiments designed to test how dogs and monkeys reacted to humans behaving rudely.

In the first experiment, a capuchin monkey was allowed to watch a scene in which a person was trying to open a can. After failing, the person asked another person for help—in some cases, the other person complied, and in some cases, they did not. Also in some cases, there was another person present who did nothing, serving as a passive actor in the scene.

In the second experiment, the researchers positioned a capuchin monkey to watch as two people arrived with three balls each. One of the people then asked the other person to give them all of their balls and the other person complied. Next, the person who had given up their balls asked the other to return them—in some cases the other person complied, and in other cases refused.

The third experiment was nearly identical to the second, except it involved dogs, their owners and another person unknown to the dog.

At the conclusion of all three experiments, the people involved (including passive actors) all offered a treat to the monkey or dog that had been observing the action. The researchers report that in all three scenarios, the animals showed a clear disinclination to accept a treat from a person that refused to help with the can or refused to give back the balls, as compared to those that were helpful or fair or were passive actors. The researchers claim this shows that capuchin monkeys and dogs make social judgments in ways similar to human infants, and that it might even offer clues regarding the development of morals in humans.

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