全球入侵物种数量在上升

2017-02-16 13:55:08 来源: 中国科技网 作者: 张微编译

一个国际研究团队,包括伦敦大学学院的研究人员发现,在全球范围内外来物种的数量正在上升,并没有显示出任何饱和的迹象。

由德国森肯堡研究中心和奥地利维也纳大学科学家领导的研究团队发现,世界范围内,在过去200年里,新确定的外来物种数量在持续增长,所有的首次入侵记录,超过三分之一发生在1970到2014年。

这项发表在今天出版的《自然通讯》上的研究表明,个体趋势与生物分类群有所不同,这可以归因于人类活动,但总体而言,对所有生物群体来说,外来物种的数量正在增加。

“我们观察到的首个明显增长的入侵率记录是19世纪的维管束植物、鸟类和哺乳动物,这可能是欧洲殖民扩张时期,园艺的传播而且认为这种引入是有益的所导致的。其它生物如藻类、软体动物或昆虫的新入侵率是在1950年之后急剧增加的,这极有可能是贸易全球化因素所导致,”论文的共同作者提姆 布莱克本教授解释说(伦敦大学学院遗传学、进化和环境科学)。

虽然我们已经知道外来物种的数量在过去的50年里一直在增加,但仍不清楚外来物种的积累是否已经达到了峰值,出现减速的情况。

论文的第一作者,德国森肯堡研究中心的Hanno Seebens博士说:“所有大陆上的所有生物群体,在过去200年间,外来物种的数量都在持续上升。对大多数生物群体来说,在最近几年,入侵率达到最高值。除了哺乳动物和鱼类之外,没有迹象表明外来物种入侵出现减速迹象,在不远的将来,我们会看到更多的新入侵物种。”

这一结论是由来自世界各地的45名科学家进行的一项大型合作研究得出的,他们建立了一个数据库,数据是在该物种的本土范围以外的区域首次被发现的日期。利用超过4万5千个记录(超过1万6千个外来物种),研究人员分析了过去几个世纪外来物种的积累。

科学家们发现有记录的37%的外来物种都是在1970-2014年和最近入侵的。峰值出现在1996年,当时世界上有585个新外来物种被记录下来,或每天1.5个新外来物种。“对于大多数外来物种来说,首次入侵日期的数据获取不到,因此,我们公布的入侵日期记录显然低估了外来物种入侵的程度,” 高级研究作者Franz Essl博士说(奥地利,维也纳大学)。

该团队称,外来物种的数量空前的增加可以导致区域物种丰度的增加,也导致对原生生态系统的各种负面影响,包括植物群和动物群的全球同质化,以及本地物种的灭绝。

出于这个原因,目前,世界各地正在建立各种法律法规,以减少新的外来物种的引入。“但是,我们的研究结果表明,过去的努力还不够有效以跟上正在进行的全球化。我们迫切需要实施更加有效预防政策,” Essl博士总结道。 (张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

Invasive species on the rise globally

The number of alien species is increasing globally, and does not show any sign of saturation, finds an international team involving UCL researchers.

Led by scientists from Senckenberg, Germany, and the University of Vienna, Austria, the team found that during the last 200 years, the number of new established alien species has grown continuously worldwide, with more than a third of all first introductions recorded between 1970 and 2014.

The study, published today in Nature Communications, shows that individual trends differ among taxonomic groups, which can be attributed to human activities, but overall, alien species numbers are increasing for all groups of organisms.

"We observe distinct increases in first record rates of vascular plants, birds and mammals in the 19th century, probably as a result of the spread of horticulture and attempts at supposedly beneficial introductions during the period of European colonial expansion. The rates of new introductions of other organisms such as algae, molluscs or insects increased steeply after 1950, most likely because of the ongoing globalisation of trade," explained study co-author Professor Tim Blackburn (UCL Genetics, Evolution & Environment).

Although it was already known that the number of alien species has increased during the last 50 years, it remained unclear whether or not the accumulation of alien species has already reached a point of slow-down.

Dr Hanno Seebens (Senckenberg, Germany), first author of the study, said: "For all groups of organisms on all continents, the number of alien species has increased continuously during the last 200 years. For most groups, the rate of introduction is highest in recent years. Barring mammals and fishes, there are no signs of a slow-down in the arrival of aliens, and we have to expect more new invasions in the near future."

This conclusion results from of a large collaborative effort by 45 scientists from all over the world, who established a database of the date an alien species was first detected in a region outside the species' native range. Using more than 45,000 of these first records of more than 16,000 alien species, they analysed the accumulation of alien species over the last few centuries.

The scientists found that 37% of all recorded alien species were introduced between 1970-2014 and thus recently. The peak came in 1996, when 585 new alien species were recorded worldwide, or more than 1.5 new alien species per day. "As the date of first record is not available for most alien species, these numbers are clearly underestimating the full extent of alien species introductions", said senior study author Dr Franz Essl (University of Vienna, Austria).

The team say the unprecedented increase in alien species numbers can lead to an increase in regional species richness but also lead to a variety of negative impacts on native ecosystems, including the global homogenisation of floras and faunas, and the global extinction of native species.

For this reason, various laws are currently in force globally attempting to mitigate the introduction of new alien species. "However our results show that the past efforts have not been effective enough to keep up with ongoing globalisation. There is an urgent need to implement more effective prevention policies at all scales," concluded Dr Essl.

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